Ventricular Fibrillation supplements
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Dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids include fish oil and certain plant/nut oils. Fish oil contains both docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), while some nuts (e.g., English walnuts) and vegetable oils (e.g., canola, soybean, flaxseed/linseed, and olive oil) contain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Evidence from several studies has suggested that amounts of DHA and EPA in the form of fish or fish oil supplements lowers triglycerides, slows the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques ("hardening of the arteries"), lowers blood pressure slightly, as well as reduces the risk of death, heart attack, dangerous abnormal heart rhythms, and strokes in people with known heart disease. However, high doses may have harmful effects, such as an increased risk of bleeding. Although similar benefits are proposed for alpha-linolenic acid, scientific evidence is less compelling, and beneficial effects may be less pronounced. Some species of fish carry a higher risk of environmental contamination, such as with methylmercury.
The main function of L-carnitine is to transfer long-chain fatty acids in the form of their acyl-carnitine esters across the inner mitochondrial membrane before beta-oxidation. In humans, it is synthesized in the liver, kidney, and brain and actively transported to other areas of the body. For example, 98% of the total body L-carnitine is confined to the skeletal and cardiac muscle at concentrations approximately 70 times higher than in the blood serum. Supplementation may be necessary in rare cases of primary carnitine deficiency, which may be caused by a defect in carnitine biosynthesis, a defect in carnitine active transport into tissue, or a defect in renal (kidney) conservation of carnitine. Known conditions of secondary deficiency of carnitine (insufficiency), in which L-carnitine is effective, include chronic stable angina and intermittent claudication characterized by distinct tissue hypoxia (low oxygen levels). Another condition that may benefit from carnitine supplementation is decreased sperm motility. Although use in preterm infants suggests carnitine supplementation may aid in maintaining or increasing plasma carnitine levels and possibly weight gain, carnitine is not routinely added to preterm total parenteral nutrition (TPN). However, soy-based infant formulas are fortified with carnitine to levels found in breast milk. In 1986, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved L-carnitine for use in primary carnitine deficiency. D-carnitine or DL-carnitine may cause secondary L-carnitine deficiency and should not be used.
The word Aconitum comes from the word "akone," meaning "rocky," which is the type of area where the aconite plant grows. Cured aconite preparations have a long history of use in Chinese medicine. Processed aconite was used to treat heart failure and other heart diseases. However, aconite has been repeatedly associated with cardiovascular (heart) adverse events. For this reason, the German Commission E does not recommend its use. Aconite is well known for its extreme toxicity. The tuberous root is used in traditional medicine, although all parts of the plant are considered to be toxic. Aconite also has a near worldwide historical usage as an arrow poison and as a poison in executions, homicides, and suicides. Aconite is also said to be an ingredient of "flying ointments" used by witches to imitate the sensation of flying. Aconite has been used in very low doses to treat neuralgia (nerve pain), sciatica, and rheumatism. Aconite is also an ingredient in homeopathic preparations used for cold and flu symptoms, heart palpitations with anxiety, acute inflammatory illness, and peripheral nerve pain. Overall, the efficacy has not been established.