Parkinson's Disease supplements
Parkinson's Disease

  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is produced by the human body and is necessary for the basic functioning of cells. CoQ10 levels are reported to decrease with age and to be low in patients with some chronic diseases such as heart conditions, muscular dystrophies, Parkinson's disease, cancer, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS. Some prescription drugs may also lower CoQ10 levels. Levels of CoQ10 in the body can be increased by taking CoQ10 supplements, although it is not clear that replacing "low CoQ10" is beneficial. CoQ10 has been used, recommended, or studied for numerous conditions, but remains controversial as a treatment in many areas.
  • Cowhage ( Mucuna pruriens ) seeds have been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to treat Parkinson's disease. This traditional use is supported by laboratory analysis that shows cowhage contains 3.6-4.2% levodopa, the same chemical used in several Parkinson's disease drugs that is a precursor to dopamine. In a few clinical trials in Parkinson's disease patients, three cowhage treatments yielded positive results. However, more research should be conducted to elucidate the treatment that is the most effective. In addition, cowhage seeds have nutritional quality comparable to soy beans and other conventional legumes, but several antinutritional/antiphysiological compounds prevent these seeds from being used as a food source.
  • Source:NaturalStandard
  • Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. Vitamin E exists in eight different forms ("isomers"): alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocopherol; and alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocotrienol. Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans. Dosing and daily allowance recommendations for vitamin E are often provided in Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE) to account for the different biological activities of the various forms of vitamin E, or in International Units (IU), which food and supplement labels may use. Vitamin E supplements are available in natural or synthetic forms. The natural forms are usually labeled with the letter "d" (for example, d-gamma-tocopherol), whereas synthetic forms are labeled "dl" (for example, dl-alpha-tocopherol). Vitamin E has been proposed for the prevention or treatment of numerous health conditions, often based on its antioxidant properties. However, aside from the treatment of vitamin E deficiency (which is rare), there are no clearly proven medicinal uses of vitamin E supplementation beyond the recommended daily allowance. There is ongoing research in numerous diseases, particularly in cancer and heart disease. Recent concerns have been raised about the safety of vitamin E supplementation, particularly in high doses. An increased risk of bleeding has been proposed, particularly in patients taking blood-thinning agents such as warfarin, heparin, or aspirin, and in patients with vitamin K deficiency. Recent evidence suggests that regular use of high-dose vitamin E supplements may increase the risk of death (from "all causes") by a small amount, although a different study found no effects on mortality in women who took vitamin E daily. Caution is warranted.
  • Melatonin is a hormone produced in the brain by the pineal gland from the amino acid tryptophan. The synthesis and release of melatonin are stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, suggesting the involvement of melatonin in circadian rhythm and regulation of diverse body functions. Levels of melatonin in the blood are highest prior to bedtime. Synthetic melatonin supplements have been used for a variety of medical conditions, most notably for disorders related to sleep. Melatonin possesses antioxidant activity, and many of its proposed therapeutic or preventive uses are based on this property. New drugs that block the effects of melatonin are in development, such as BMS-214778 or luzindole, and may have uses in various disorders.
  • Kava beverages, made from dried roots of the shrub Piper methysticum , have been used ceremonially and socially in the South Pacific for hundreds of years and in Europe since the 1700s. Several well-conducted human studies have demonstrated kava's efficacy in the treatment of anxiety with effects observed after as few as one to two doses and progressive improvements over one to four weeks. Preliminary evidence suggests possible equivalence to benzodiazepines. Many experts believe that kava is neither sedating nor tolerance-forming in recommended doses. Some trials report occasional mild sedation, although preliminary data from small studies suggest lack of neurological-psychological impairment. There is growing concern regarding the potential for liver toxicity from kava. Multiple cases of liver damage have been reported in Europe, including hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. Kava has been removed from shelves in several countries due to these safety concerns. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued warnings to consumers and physicians. It is not clear what dose or duration of use is correlated with the risk of liver damage. The quality of these case reports has been variable; several are vague, describe use of products that do not actually list kava as an ingredient, or include patients who also ingest large quantities of alcohol. Nonetheless, caution is warranted. Chronic or heavy use of kava has also been associated with cases of neurotoxicity, pulmonary hypertension, and dermatologic changes. Most human trials have been shorter than two months, with the longest study being six months in duration.
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