After a doctor completes medical school and is licensed to practice medicine, the physician may pursue a rigorous 3 year training program in Internal Medicine.
The American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes Family Medicine as a distinct discipline requiring an additional three years of training for doctors who wish to become Board Certified in this field. Family Medicine doctors are usually primary care providers (PCPs) [formerly general practitioners, or GPs] for the entire family.
A Medical Geneticist is a doctor who completes a two- to four-year residency training program in medical genetics, and is expert in diagnosis and treatment recommendations for genetically linked diseases. There are four pathways to certification that the medical geneticist may pursue of which clinical cytogenetics is one.