Fibromyalgia is a chronic illness that causes aches, pains, and extreme fatigue. The symptoms are similar to those caused by arthritis, but unlike arthritis, it doesn't cause damage to the joints and muscles.
Anyone can get fibromyalgia, but those most commonly affected are:
- Women in their 20s and 30s
- People who have a disease that affects the joints, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or ankylosing spondylitis
Fibromyalgia tends to get worse at times and better at others. It may never go away completely, but you can feel better with treatment.
What causes it?
Doctors aren't sure what causes fibromyalgia, but they think it's related to a problem with how the body processes pain signals, causing it to overreact to pain signals.
Fibromyalgia is often brought on by an injury, an infection, or stress. It seems to run in families, so the tendency to get it may be at least partly inherited (genetic).
What are the symptoms?
The most common symptoms of fibromyalgia are:
- Tenderness. One of the key features of fibromyalgia is the presence of specific "tender points" on the neck, shoulders, arms, legs, back, and hips. Even light pressure on these points may be painful.
- Pain. The pain is widespread and affects different parts of your body at different times. Your muscles and joints may throb, ache, or burn. You may feel stiff when you wake up in the morning.
- Fatigue. You may feel so exhausted that you have trouble getting through the day.
- Sleep problems. You may have trouble getting enough deep, restorative sleep.
Fibromyalgia may cause other symptoms, too. These include irritable bowel syndrome, headaches, restless legs syndrome, trouble thinking or remembering (sometimes called "fibro fog"), anxiety, and depression.
How is it diagnosed?
People sometimes live with the pain and fatigue for some time before they are diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Its symptoms are similar to those of many other conditions and it often occurs along with other diseases. Doctors usually have to rule out these diseases before fibromyalgia can be pinpointed. Doctors rely on a physical exam and a history of symptoms to diagnose it. You may be diagnosed with fibromyalgia if you have:
- Widespread pain for at least 3 months
- Pain or tenderness at 11 out of 18 specific "tender points"
- Symptoms that can't be explained by another problem
There are no blood tests or x-rays that can diagnose fibromyalgia, but a doctor might do these tests to help rule out another problem that causes similar symptoms.
How is it treated?
Fibromyalgia is a frustrating condition that can be hard to diagnose and treat. Many people benefit from a combination of medical treatment and self-care strategies.
Medicines may help with your symptoms. Medicines that doctors often prescribe include:
- Pain relievers. Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help some people. Others need stronger prescription medicines, such as tramadol (Ultram).
- Antidepressants, such as amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), fluoxetine (Prozac) , venlafaxine (Effexor), and duloxetine (Cymbalta). Milnacipran (Savella) is similar to a drug used to treat depression but is approved only for fibromyalgia. These medicines may help with any sleep problems as well as pain and fatigue.
- Medicine for nerve pain called pregabalin (Lyrica) or gabapentin (Neurontin).
- Medicines for specific symptoms, such as muscle relaxants and headache remedies.
Your doctor may also suggest other treatments, such as therapeutic massage, physical therapy, and counseling. A type of counseling called cognitive-behavioral therapy may help you learn ways to cope with your illness.
Good self-care is vital in managing fibromyalgia. To do your best:
- Get daily exercise. It may be hard to think of exercising when you have no energy and you hurt all over. But exercise is probably the best thing you can do for yourself. Start slowly and do more as you feel able. Try a 15-minute walk, swim, or bike ride, then do some stretching. Over time, exercise can reduce pain and stiffness. Always check with your doctor before you increase your activity.
- Practice good sleep habits. Go to bed and get up at the same time every day. Make sure your bedroom is quiet, dark, and at a comfortable temperature. Avoid caffeine and alcohol before bedtime. Try not to nap during the day.
- Find ways to reduce stress. Look for ways to simplify your schedule. Make some time each day to relax. Try meditation or deep breathing.
- Learn more about fibromyalgia. Organizations such as the National Fibromyalgia Association have lots of information. Sharing what you learn with family, friends, and co-workers can help them understand more about your illness.
Created on 02/19/2008
Updated on 09/27/2011
- Burkham J, Harris ED, Jr. Fibromyalgia: A chronic pain syndrome. In: Harris ED, Jr., et al., eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology, 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2005.
- National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Fibromyalgia.
- Rooks DS, Gautam S, Romeling M, et al. Group exercise, education and combination self-management in women with fibromyalgia: A randomized trial. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2007;167:2192-2200.
- American College of Rheumatology. Fibromyalgia.